In organic chemistry, the term “catenation” is used to refer to the bonding of atoms of the same element into a series . Also known as the tendency of self-combination. This takes place most readily with carbon atoms .
Carbon atoms can form long chains by sharing their valence electrons with other carbon atoms .
This is not to say that carbon is the only element capable of forming such a chain; other elements capable of catenation include hydrogen, boron, silicon, phosphorous, sulfur, and halogens.
This occurs only with elements that have a valence of at least two and can form strong bonds with themselves.
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